Epistemological Vs - Birkbeck, University of London

... of the Cartesian quest for certainty. Now we might expect some remarks representing the second feature of Quine's early epistemological writings, namely Quine's claim that we can and should settle for a pragmatic account of justification. This expectation is not fulfilled. Proceeding to reject along ...

... of the Cartesian quest for certainty. Now we might expect some remarks representing the second feature of Quine's early epistemological writings, namely Quine's claim that we can and should settle for a pragmatic account of justification. This expectation is not fulfilled. Proceeding to reject along ...

X - NUS School of Computing

... The negation of a for all statement is a there exists statement, and the negation of a there exists statement is a for all statement. These facts are analogous to De Morgan’s laws, which state that the negation of an and statement is an or statement and that the negation of an or statement is an ...

... The negation of a for all statement is a there exists statement, and the negation of a there exists statement is a for all statement. These facts are analogous to De Morgan’s laws, which state that the negation of an and statement is an or statement and that the negation of an or statement is an ...

... The negation of a for all statement is a there exists statement, and the negation of a there exists statement is a for all statement. These facts are analogous to De Morgan’s laws, which state that the negation of an and statement is an or statement and that the negation of an or statement is an ...

Pierre Duhem`s Virtue Epistemology

... facts that are relevant to a particular problem. Given that hypotheses and theories cannot be read directly from experimental facts, a strict form of inductivism is ruled out. Hypothesis formation requires creativity and decisions about what is relevant (Hempel, 1966, p. 11).3 Secondly, there will a ...

... facts that are relevant to a particular problem. Given that hypotheses and theories cannot be read directly from experimental facts, a strict form of inductivism is ruled out. Hypothesis formation requires creativity and decisions about what is relevant (Hempel, 1966, p. 11).3 Secondly, there will a ...

RETRANSMITTABILITY AND EMPIRICAL PROPOSITIONS

... sense experience and a proposition which is to count as genuine knowledge must be derivable from basic or atomic propositions whose truth is guaranteed by sense experience. Anti-justificationists, by contrast, do not attempt to give a precise and exact definition of knowledge. Unlike justificationis ...

... sense experience and a proposition which is to count as genuine knowledge must be derivable from basic or atomic propositions whose truth is guaranteed by sense experience. Anti-justificationists, by contrast, do not attempt to give a precise and exact definition of knowledge. Unlike justificationis ...

Set Theory and Logic

... Many sets cannot be listed so easily (or at all for that matter), and in many of these cases it is convenient to use a rule to specify a set. For example, suppose we want to define a set S that consists of all real numbers between −1 and 1, inclusive. We use the notation S = {x|x ∈ R and − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 ...

... Many sets cannot be listed so easily (or at all for that matter), and in many of these cases it is convenient to use a rule to specify a set. For example, suppose we want to define a set S that consists of all real numbers between −1 and 1, inclusive. We use the notation S = {x|x ∈ R and − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 ...

The Omnitude Determiner and Emplacement for the Square of

... Logicists, trying to base mathematics on logic as Frege and Russell did, find their logic in natural languages like everyone else, but the portion of logic they took from it was selected and tooled for its utility in deriving mathematical statements, improving proofs, establishing relations between ...

... Logicists, trying to base mathematics on logic as Frege and Russell did, find their logic in natural languages like everyone else, but the portion of logic they took from it was selected and tooled for its utility in deriving mathematical statements, improving proofs, establishing relations between ...

On the Indispensable Premises of the Indispensability - Hal-SHS

... i) We ought rationally to believe in the existence of any entity which plays an indispensable explanatory role in our best scientific theories; ii) Mathematical objects play an indispensable explanatory role in science; -----------------------------iii) Hence, we ought rationally to believe in the e ...

... i) We ought rationally to believe in the existence of any entity which plays an indispensable explanatory role in our best scientific theories; ii) Mathematical objects play an indispensable explanatory role in science; -----------------------------iii) Hence, we ought rationally to believe in the e ...

overhead 12/proofs in predicate logic [ov]

... universal statement WAS derived from universal statements, we require that this instance is derived within a "flagged subproof" and apply the following restrictions: R1 A letter being flagged must be new to the proof, that is, it may not appear, either in a formula or as a letter being flagged, prev ...

... universal statement WAS derived from universal statements, we require that this instance is derived within a "flagged subproof" and apply the following restrictions: R1 A letter being flagged must be new to the proof, that is, it may not appear, either in a formula or as a letter being flagged, prev ...

Popper and Xenophanes - ORCA

... experienced instances, as a deep-seated illusion. Relatedly, he also rejected verificationism, both as a theory of meaning and (more importantly) as either a potential theory of knowledge or a criterion of demarcation between science and non-science. For the true path of Enlightenment consisted in n ...

... experienced instances, as a deep-seated illusion. Relatedly, he also rejected verificationism, both as a theory of meaning and (more importantly) as either a potential theory of knowledge or a criterion of demarcation between science and non-science. For the true path of Enlightenment consisted in n ...

THE LOGIC OF QUANTIFIED STATEMENTS

... • Any particular x in D that makes “if P(x) then Q(x)” true also makes “if ~Q(x) then ~P(x)” true (by logical equivalence between p → q ...

... • Any particular x in D that makes “if P(x) then Q(x)” true also makes “if ~Q(x) then ~P(x)” true (by logical equivalence between p → q ...

Socializing Naturalized Philosophy of Science

... success of science as a whole, rather than simply the relations between individual scientists' internal representations and the world. I will argue below that a correct understanding of the social dimension of science, ignored by cognitive individualists, provides a naturalistic approach more adequa ...

... success of science as a whole, rather than simply the relations between individual scientists' internal representations and the world. I will argue below that a correct understanding of the social dimension of science, ignored by cognitive individualists, provides a naturalistic approach more adequa ...

Mark and Lack: On Zero

... 1) The concept of identity holds only for marks. Logic never has recourse to any ...

... 1) The concept of identity holds only for marks. Logic never has recourse to any ...

pdf

... of science know such But, philosophy as of that the In a say well, guiding programs 'Unity of Science'? a but is there subtle difference. The above sense, yes, mentioned and indeed they logical programs made claims which were falsifiable5; were falsified - witness, G?del's It is Theorems. e.g., Inco ...

... of science know such But, philosophy as of that the In a say well, guiding programs 'Unity of Science'? a but is there subtle difference. The above sense, yes, mentioned and indeed they logical programs made claims which were falsifiable5; were falsified - witness, G?del's It is Theorems. e.g., Inco ...

Point-free geometry, Approximate Distances and Verisimilitude of

... (iii) either some true consequences of T2 are not consequences of T1 or some false consequences of T1 are not consequences of T2. In other words, T2 is able to prove all the theorems of T1 which are in accordance with the evidence, the theorems of T2 conflicting with the evidence are also theorems o ...

... (iii) either some true consequences of T2 are not consequences of T1 or some false consequences of T1 are not consequences of T2. In other words, T2 is able to prove all the theorems of T1 which are in accordance with the evidence, the theorems of T2 conflicting with the evidence are also theorems o ...

- Philsci

... one big, persistent assumption about the universe, namely that it is such that no disunified or aberrant theory is true. It assumes that the universe is such that there are no pockets of peculiarity, at specific times and places, or when specific conditions arise (gold spheres, gold and diamond dust ...

... one big, persistent assumption about the universe, namely that it is such that no disunified or aberrant theory is true. It assumes that the universe is such that there are no pockets of peculiarity, at specific times and places, or when specific conditions arise (gold spheres, gold and diamond dust ...

Logic - United States Naval Academy

... Two (compound) expressions are logically equivalent if and only if they have identical truth values for all possible combinations of truth values for the sub-expressions. If A and B are logically equivalent, we write A B . (Another notation for logical equivalence is ; that is, if A and B are lo ...

... Two (compound) expressions are logically equivalent if and only if they have identical truth values for all possible combinations of truth values for the sub-expressions. If A and B are logically equivalent, we write A B . (Another notation for logical equivalence is ; that is, if A and B are lo ...

Ernest Gellner: A Philosopher as Anthropologist

... man, and detested the fact that he imposed a rigid orthodoxy on his followers, creating a closed society in defiance of his own precepts. Gellner liked to repeat the old LSE joke that Popper’s masterpiece The Open Society and its Enemies should have been called ‘The Open Society, by one of its Enemi ...

... man, and detested the fact that he imposed a rigid orthodoxy on his followers, creating a closed society in defiance of his own precepts. Gellner liked to repeat the old LSE joke that Popper’s masterpiece The Open Society and its Enemies should have been called ‘The Open Society, by one of its Enemi ...

Week 3: Logical Language

... Mathematical English It is vitally important at this stage to understand the exact meaning of the logical symbols that have been introduced, and how they are connected to the English language, which is usually less precise than it should be. In most settings, mathematical statements – including most ...

... Mathematical English It is vitally important at this stage to understand the exact meaning of the logical symbols that have been introduced, and how they are connected to the English language, which is usually less precise than it should be. In most settings, mathematical statements – including most ...

EXPERIENCE AND PERCEPTUAL BELIEF

... Popper discussed the relations between perceptual experience and perceptual belief in his Logic of Scientific Discovery, first published in 1934. He called it the ‘problem of the empirical basis’. I think his discussion is a philosophical tour de force. Most philosophers think it completely wrong-he ...

... Popper discussed the relations between perceptual experience and perceptual belief in his Logic of Scientific Discovery, first published in 1934. He called it the ‘problem of the empirical basis’. I think his discussion is a philosophical tour de force. Most philosophers think it completely wrong-he ...

Lecture 1: Elements of Mathematical Logic

... rigorous and meticulous; but we will take our time to cover the material. And while we will be often dealing in abstractions; we shall be doing so to develop concrete ways of handling far reaching concepts. 1. Basic Logic 1.1. Statements. In order to get our bearings, let us begin with a discussion ...

... rigorous and meticulous; but we will take our time to cover the material. And while we will be often dealing in abstractions; we shall be doing so to develop concrete ways of handling far reaching concepts. 1. Basic Logic 1.1. Statements. In order to get our bearings, let us begin with a discussion ...

Unity and Revolutions: A Paradigm for Paradigms

... theory of fundamental particles: a large number of hadrons were reduced to just six quarks. Quantum chromodynamics brought further unification to the theory of fundamental particles by providing a quantum theory of the strong force. The standard model, the current quantum theory of fundamental parti ...

... theory of fundamental particles: a large number of hadrons were reduced to just six quarks. Quantum chromodynamics brought further unification to the theory of fundamental particles by providing a quantum theory of the strong force. The standard model, the current quantum theory of fundamental parti ...

the liberalism of karl popper

... conclusions from the collapse of induction: rather, appealing to a principle of transference from validity in logic to efficacy in psychology, he rehabilitates rationality in thought and action with the conjecture that learning occurs in human beings and all other problem-solving organisms, not thro ...

... conclusions from the collapse of induction: rather, appealing to a principle of transference from validity in logic to efficacy in psychology, he rehabilitates rationality in thought and action with the conjecture that learning occurs in human beings and all other problem-solving organisms, not thro ...

Notes - Conditional Statements and Logic.notebook

... and SWITCH the hypothesis and conclusion. (think of a con-artist who switches things) Find the converse of your conditional statement If a polygon has 3 sides, then it is a triangle. Converse Statement (q ⇒ p): ...

... and SWITCH the hypothesis and conclusion. (think of a con-artist who switches things) Find the converse of your conditional statement If a polygon has 3 sides, then it is a triangle. Converse Statement (q ⇒ p): ...

# Falsifiability

Falsifiability or refutability of a statement, hypothesis, or theory is an inherent possibility to prove it to be false. A statement is called falsifiable if it is possible to conceive an observation or an argument which proves the statement in question to be false. In this sense, falsify is synonymous with nullify, meaning not ""to commit fraud"" but ""show to be false"".For example, by the problem of induction, no number of confirming observations can verify a universal generalization, such as All swans are white, yet it is logically possible to falsify it by observing a single black swan. Thus, the term falsifiability is sometimes synonymous to testability. Some statements, such as It will be raining here in one million years, are falsifiable in principle, but not in practice.The concern with falsifiability gained attention by way of philosopher of science Karl Popper's scientific epistemology ""falsificationism"". Popper stresses the problem of demarcation—distinguishing the scientific from the unscientific—and makes falsifiability the demarcation criterion, such that what is unfalsifiable is classified as unscientific, and the practice of declaring an unfalsifiable theory to be scientifically true is pseudoscience.