It’s that time of year again – Hacker Summer Camp. (Hacker Summer Camp is the ~weeklong period where several of the largest hacker/information security conferences take place in Las Vegas, NV, including DEF CON and Black Hat USA.) This will be the 3rd year in a row where it takes place under the spectre of a worldwide pandemic, and the first one to be fully in-person again. BSidesLV has returned to in-person, DEF CON is in-person only, Black Hat will be in full swing, and Ringzer0 will be offerring in-person trainings. It’s almost enough to forget there’s still an ongoing pandemic.

I did attend last year’s hybrid DEF CON in person, and I’ve been around a few times, so I wanted to share a few tidbits, especially for first timers. Hopefully it’s useful to some of you.


  • DEF CON is arguably the penultimate event of the week. By far the largest by attendance, it also brings the greatest variety in hackers to the event. Ranging from students just getting into the scene to seasoned hackers with decades of experience to industry professionals, the networking opportunities are limitless. The talks are generally high quality, though they can be a bit of a mixed bag sometimes. Some will teach/demonstrate great things, and I always find a few worth watching, even if only when they get published on YouTube.

    There are “villages” for every topic and space – voting machines, hardware hacking, Red Teaming, IoT, lockpicking, social engineering, and more. The villages allow niche areas of hacking to showcase their special interests, and are generally run by individuals with a pure passion for their field. If you want to know more about a particular subfield of hacking, there is no better way than finding the right village.

    For the more competitive type, there’s a variety of competitions. In addition to the main “DEF CON CTF”, there’s also typically smaller CTFs in the Contest area or individual villages, so those looking for a challenge can put their skills to the test. Other competitions in the past have included a scavenger hunt, a password cracking competition, a beverage cooling competition, and more.

    In the evening, there’s variety of activities from parties/concerts to “Hacker Jeopardy” – a very mature take on Jeopdardy! with a hacker theme. There’s also plenty of private parties and places to hang out with fellow hackers all evening long.

    You may also hear people refer to “the badge” when talking about admission to the conference. While other conferences usually talk about registration or a ticket and have some boring piece of paper to present as your admission, DEF CON badges have become a work of art. Approximately every other year, the badge is electronic and has microcontrollers and some electronic function. In theory, DEF CON 30 should be a “passive” year, the creators of the badge (MK Factor) have confirmed that it will be electronic this year. (Check out the linked interview if you’re curious.)

    New this year is DEFCON trainings. These are taking place after DEF CON and providing some opportunities to get high-quality training associated with the conference. They’re all 2-day trainings, but they appear to be a good value for money in comparison to many other commercial training offerings.

  • Black Hat is the premiere security industry conference. I differentiate it from a hacking conference in that most of the people who are there will be people who strictly work in the industry and far fewer who are hackers just for the fun of it. Part of this is the cost (at least an order of magnitude more than DEF CON), and part of this is the general atmosphere. Polo shirts are the order of the day instead of black t-shirts and mohawks.

    There’s lots of high-quality technical material, but also a vendor sales floor with all the sales pitches you can possibly imagine. (But this is also where you can get free SWAG and party invites, so it’s not all terrible news.)

    Black Hat also has a multitude of training opportunities. In fact, Black Hat USA is likely the largest single site training event for the information security space each year. There’s trainings for every background and skill level, for all kinds of specialities, and in both 2- and 4-day formats.

  • BSidesLV is the B-Side to Black Hat. A community conference through-and-through, it has many similarities to the DEF CON of many years ago, but with a little more chill attitude. BSides is a great opportunity for new speakers as well as those who want to interact with fellow hackers in a more chill and (slightly) smaller atmosphere – though it’s gotten quite busy itself over the years. BSides takes over all the conference space at the Tuscany, and most of the hotel rooms, so it’s a great opportunity to be completely immersed in the hacker scene.

  • The Diana Initiative is “A conference committed to helping all those underrepresented in Information Security.” In the past, it’s been a 1 day or 1/2 day affair, but now it’s becoming a 2 day event, and I’m so happy to see such an important topic getting more love.

  • Ringzer0 is a training-only event focusing predominantly on reverse engineering and exploitation. It provides a nice alternative to Black Hat trainings (it’s the same days, but an independent event). The trainings offered here seem much more specific than Black Hat trainings, and I’m planning to take one, so I’ll have a review here after the event.


The biggest single piece of advice I can offer is: don’t try to do everything. You can’t do it, and managing your energy is actually an important part of the week, especially if you’re attending multiple of the conferences during the week.

Beyond that, I encourage you to think about what you hope to get out of your time. If you’d like to try out contests, pick out one or maybe two and focus on them. If you’re looking for a new role or wanting to meet new people, find social opportunities. If you’re looking to expand your skills in a particular direction, identify all of the relevant content in the area.

I’ve had years where I tried to do too much and ended the week feeling I’d done nothing at all. I typically prioritize interactive events – contests, meeting people, etc., – over talks, because the talks will be recorded and available later, unless the talk is something I plan to immediately apply. At the bigger events (DEF CON and Black Hat) the audience is likely to be so large that even if you have questions, it will be hard to get them answered by the speaker.


Quite frankly, the best time to plan hotel and airfare has probably already passed, but the 2nd best time to plan them is right now. I expect both will only rise in price from this point forward. Unfortunately, prices have been very volatile this summer. As of writing, the following group rates for hotels are still available:

  • DEF CON Room Block – Note that this year, DEF CON is at Caesar’s Forum, which is a new conference center located behind the Linq and Harrah’s. (It is attached to these two hotels by a skybridge.)
  • The Tuscany is the off-strip resort that hosts BSidesLV. They still have a number of rooms available, and most of the guests at the hotel will be fellow hackers during the course of the week.
  • Black Hat has rates at the Mandalay Bay. I’d only recommend this if you’ll be attending Black Hat, however, as it’s at the far south end of the strip.
  • Ringzer0 has a special rate for those attending their training at Park MGM. One feature of this hotel is that the entire thing is Non-Smoking. Along with Vdara and the Delano, this is an unusual quality on the strip and great for those with allergies.

Airfare is obviously high dependant on where you are originating. If it’s not too far and airfare looks a bit pricey for you, check out whether anyone from a local DEF CON Group is driving and maybe you can split the gas and make a new friend! There’s also ride and room share threads on the DEF CON Forum. While there’s obviously good reasons to be careful of who you ride or room with, lots of people have had success and met new friends along the way.

Bringing Tech

Some people want to spend the whole week hacking. Some want to be hands-off keyboard the whole week. You might be somewhere in between. What you want to do during the week will dictate a lot of the tech you bring with you.

Since I will be attending a training event and enjoy playing in the contests/CTFs, I will necessarily be bringing a laptop with me – in this case, my Framework Laptop that I love. (Full review of that coming soon.) I have a 1TB SSD which should be enough for VMs for training and CTFs as well, but I’ll probably also bring along an external SSD for sharing resources. They’re light enough that the speed advantage over a typical flash drive is worth it.

If you do intend to take a training or play a CTF for more than a little bit, I can’t recommend a wireless mouse enough. Even the great trackpad on Macbooks just doesn’t feel as good to me as a mouse after a few hours.

Outlets can also be quite limited, so if you bring a travel power strip, you can always squeeze in where someone else has plugged in and even provide more outlets. Sharing is caring!

I’ll also have my Pixel 6 Pro, but won’t bring any work tech along with me – I’m fortunate to not be in an urgent/oncall role, and this allows me to better focus on what I’m doing there instead of what’s going on in the office. Though phone battery life has gotten pretty good for a lot of phones, I’ll still bring a backup battery bank. There are even ones capable of charging many laptops available, though they get a bit bulky and heavy.

I’ll cover protecting your tech down below, but the short form is that I have no problem bringing things (laptop, phone, etc.).


Look, it’s Las Vegas in August. You don’t need to check a weather forecast to know that it’s going to be hot. Reaching 45℃ (110℉) is not out of the question. There’s not likely to be much rain, but I have seen it a time or two. Windy is a definite possibility though. Dress accordingly.

In the casinos and the conference areas, the air conditioning is often on full blast. I’m personally comfortable in a T-Shirt and jeans or shorts, but if you’re prone to being cold under such conditions, a lightweight hoodie or jacket might not be a bad idea.

I have two schools of thought on carrying things with me. Some years, I have intentionally used a smaller backpack to avoid lugging so much stuff around with me for days on end. This does work out, but then I end up wishing I had certain other items. The other extreme is carrying my EDC backpack full of gear and a sore back after a couple of days. Carrying the smaller backpack is probably the better decision, but I can’t say I’m always known for making the best decisions.

It may seem a bit anachronistic, but I also suggest carrying a small notebook (I’m quite partial to Field Notes with Dot-Graph paper) and pen. To this day, I still find it easier to make quick notes on pen and paper than on my phone, especially if I need a diagram or drawing of any sort. (It also requires no recharging.)


Stay Healthy

Addressing the elephant in the room, there is still a pandemic going on, and new variants all the time. Everyone has already made up their mind on vaccinations, so I’m not going to try to push anyone on that, but I will strongly suggest bringing some tests with you to Las Vegas. If you test positive, please don’t come to the conferences and infect others. Yes, missing out on part of con will suck, but it’s still the right thing to do. DEF CON and BSidesLV are both requiring masking at all times (consider ear savers), except when eating, drinking, or presenting. Neither is requiring proof of vaccination.

Even prior to the pandemic, Hacker Summer Camp posed its own health challenges. Inadequate sleep is nearly universal, and drinking, heat, and dry air can quickly lead to dehydration. Drinking water is absolutely critical. I strongly recommend bringing an insulated water bottle, and you can refill from water fountains in the conference space. Bottled water in the hotels is extremely expensive (I believe most people would call it a “rip-off”) but if you want to get bottled water, I suggest going to CVS, or the ABC convenience stores on the Strip. (Fun fact, those stores also sell alcohol at pretty reasonable prices if you want to have a drink in your room. Hotel rules would definitely preclude carrying a flask in the conference space, so no hackers would ever do that.)

I particularly hate the heat, so I also bring a couple of “cooling towels” – you dampen them, and the evaporating water causes them to cool off, consequently cooling you off. They also make a great basic towel for wiping sweat away or any other quick use. I was skeptical when I first heard of them, but they really work to make you feel cooler.

Physical Safety

Las Vegas is a bit of a unique city in that it’s built entirely around the tourism industry. This is even more true on or near “The Strip”, the section of Las Vegas Boulevard from The STRAT to Mandalay Bay (just north of Reid Airport). Every scam you can imagine is being played here as well as many you won’t even have thought of. Your Social Engineering instincts should be on high alert.

Pickpocketing and theft of anything unattended are both commonplace on the strip, but robbery less so on the strip. It’s more your belongings than you yourself that are at risk. Stay in a group if you can.

Know that the street performers have an expectation of getting paid if you take a photo with them. This ranges from a guy in a poor Mickey Mouse costume to women dressed up as Las Vegas showgirls. It may get confrontational if you take a photo and try not to tip them at all, but also don’t let them rip you off if you decide to do this.

Electronic Safety

If you have fully up-to-date (patched) devices, I do not believe the risk of compromise to be especially high. Consider the value of 0-day exploits in modern platforms along with the number of reverse engineers and malware analysts present who might get a copy, resulting in the 0-day being “burned”. To the best of my knowledge, no device I’ve ever taken has been compromised. (And yes, I used to take “burner” devices, my views on this have evolved over the years.)

If you have a device that can’t run the latest available OS (i.e., no longer receives Android or iOS Updates), I strongly recommend upgrading, whether or not you plan to bring it to DEF CON. Unfortunately there are enough browser and similar bugs that affect older OSs that they’re basically unsafe on any public network, not just the ones at these conferences.

At DEF CON, they provide both an “open” network (on which there are plenty of shenanigans, but not modern OS 0-day as far as I’m aware) and a “secure” network that uses 802.1x authentication with certificates (make sure you verify the network certificate) and also prevents client-to-client traffic.

I do recommend not bringing any particularly sensitive data, and having a thorough backup before your trip.

VPNs are a bit of a controversial topic in the security space right now. Too many providers pretend they can offer things they can. At a simple level, your traffic is eventually egressing onto the public internet, and it’s not end-to-end encryption. If you’re in the security space and not familiar with how commercial VPNs work, now might be a great time to look more into it. I do think they have value on open wireless networks because the opportunity for meddler-in-the-middle attacks is less on a VPN than on the open WiFi. I personally use Private Internet Access but there are many options out there.


What’s a Goon?

DEF CON Goons are the volunteer army that help make sure DEF CON occurs as successfully and safely as possible. While they have a bit of a reputation for their loudness and directness, their goal is to keep things moving and do so safely. They can be identified by their red DEF CON badges.

Where can I learn more about the history of DEF CON?

I’m hardly a historian, but I can recommend checking out the DEF CON documentary produced by Jason Scott at DEF CON 20 in 2012.

What is Badgelife?

The official DEF CON badges eventually inspired other creators to get into the space of making badges as well. These may be electronic, laser cut, hand crafted, and more. Some will be sold publicly, others are given out to friends, and still others may be associated with an activity in one of the villages. These are often called “unofficial badges” since they are not associated with the DEF CON organizers and they don’t gain you access to the conference. (Some may gain you access to parties and events run by their creators, however.)

The electronic component shortage associated with the pandemic has slowed things down a bit, but this space appears poised to make a come back this year or so. At the end of the day, Badgelife is just a particularly nerdy form of art. (I’ve been a small-volume badgelife creator for a few years, so I feel well positioned to acknowledge the nerdiness.)

Where Can I See Past Talks?

The DEF CON Media Server has all the media from every DEF CON held, but not every DEF CON had talks recorded. Many of the videos have also been uploaded to YouTube.

Black Hat posts some of the videos from their conferences to their YouTube page. Likewise, BSidesLV has a YouTube page with their talks. Finally, The Diana Initiative has also uploaded their videos from 2021. (Though apparently none from before that time, at least that I could locate.)

What is the Rule on Photography?

Until about 10 years ago, the rule was no photography allowed but now that basically everyone carries a camera with them wherever they go (my phone actually has 4 separate cameras), it’s been updated a bit:

Everyone in the photo must consent to having their photo taken at both DEF CON and BSidesLV. (And, quite frankly, this is good advice for life in general.) This includes individuals in the background, etc. There may also be areas (Skytalks, Mohawkcon) that absolutely prohibit photography. I have personally witnessed individuals removed from events for violating this rule.

At DEF CON 15, an undercover reporter was chased from the event. While the events do allow press, they are required to register as such (which earns them a specially-colored badge) and the policies require they identify themselves as press to participants.

A reporter coming “undercover” hoping to catch individuals openly discussing criming in the hallways is likely to be very disappointed. You’re far more likely to catch people mocking the security industry itself.

I Don’t Know Anyone – How Do I Meet People?!

I struggle with this myself, but the Lonely Hackers Club has a great guide.


I hope some of these tips have been helpful to at least some of you. :) Feel free to reach me on Twitter with any feedback you might have. If you want to get into the right mindset, I highly recommend checking out the music CDs or live recordings from past DEFCONs or checking out Dual Core Music.