Bash Extended Test & Pattern Matching17 Apr 2017 in Linux
While my daily driver shell is ZSH, when I script, I tend to target Bash. I’ve found it’s the best mix of availability & feature set. (Ideally, scripts would be in pure posix shell, but then I’m missing a lot of features that would make my life easier. On the other hand, ZSH is not available everywhere, and certainly many systems do not have it installed by default.)
I’ve started trying to use the Bash “extended test command” (
[[) when I write
tests in bash, because it has fewer ways you can misuse it with bad quoting (the
shell parses the whole test command rather than parsing it as arguments to a
command) and I find the operations available easier to read. One of those
operations is pattern matching of strings, which allows for stupidly simple
substring tests and other conveniences. Take, for example:
1 2 3 4 $animals="bird cat dog" if [[ $animals == *dog* ]] ; then echo "We have a dog!" fi
This is an easy way to see if an item is contained in a string.
Anyone who’s done programming or scripting is probably aware that the equality operator (i.e., test for equality) is a commutative operator. That is to say the following are equivalent:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 $a="foo" $b="foo" if [[ $a == $b ]] ; then echo "a and b are equal." fi if [[ $b == $a ]] ; then echo "a and b are still equal." fi
Seems obvious right? If a equals b, then b must equal a. So surely we can reverse our test in the first example and get the same results.
1 2 3 4 5 6 $animals="bird cat dog" if [[ *dog* == $animals ]] ; then echo "We have a dog!" else echo "No dog found." fi
Go ahead, give it a try, I’ll wait here.
OK, you probably didn’t even need to try it, or this would have been a
particularly boring blog post. (Which isn’t to say that this one is a
page turner to begin with.) Yes, it turns out that sample prints
found., but obviously we have a dog in our animals. If equality is commutative
and the pattern matching worked in the first place, then why doesn’t this test
Well, it turns out that the equality test operator in bash isn’t really commutative – or more to the point, that the pattern expansion isn’t commutative. Reading the Bash Reference Manual, we discover that there’s a catch to pattern expansion:
When the ‘==’ and ‘!=’ operators are used, the string to the right of the operator is considered a pattern and matched according to the rules described below in Pattern Matching, as if the extglob shell option were enabled. The ‘=’ operator is identical to ‘==’. If the nocasematch shell option (see the description of shopt in The Shopt Builtin) is enabled, the match is performed without regard to the case of alphabetic characters. The return value is 0 if the string matches (‘==’) or does not match (‘!=’)the pattern, and 1 otherwise. Any part of the pattern may be quoted to force the quoted portion to be matched as a string.
It makes sense when you think about it (I can’t begin to think how you would compare two patterns) and it is at least documented, but it wasn’t obvious to me. Until it bit me in a script – then it became painfully obvious.
Like many of these posts, writing this is intended primarily as a future reference to myself, but also in hopes it will be useful to someone else. It took me half an hour of Googling to get the right keywords to discover this documentation (I didn’t know the double bracket syntax was called the “extended test command”, which helps a lot), so hopefully it took you less time to find this post.